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  • Undergraduate Poster Abstracts
  • Public Health (Include. Env. Health/Epidemiology)

    THU-108 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE NAVAJO BIRTH COHORT STUDY

    • Danielle Duarte ;
    • Johnnye Lewis ;
    • Joseph Hoover ;

    THU-108

    IMPROVING COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE NAVAJO BIRTH COHORT STUDY

    Danielle Duarte1, Johnnye Lewis2, Joseph Hoover2.

    1The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, 2College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    Humans are regularly exposed to a variety of chemicals in day-to-day activities that can impact health. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is a scientific method that allows researchers to assess whether and to what extent people are exposed and to evaluate how exposure may change over time. Although there has been progress regarding the collection and analysis of HBM information, there is limited research addressing how to properly convey results to study participants and communities. This study focuses on how to effectively disseminate biomonitoring results to the staff of the Navajo Birth Cohort Study (NBCS) in a way that they understand and helps them communicate with study participants. The opportunity to assess how field staff view the flyer is the first step in designing an effective tool that enables participant understanding of NBCS results. To effectively communicate NBCS results, we will create an informational flyer about arsenic to be put in hospitals on the Navajo Nation and will include components describing environmental sources of arsenic, ways of exposure, possible health effects, HBM study results, and ways to reduce exposure. This flyer will then be presented to NBCS researchers and field staff for evaluation using a semi-structured interview method. We will then edit the flyer based on comments and suggestions. We anticipate the study findings will identify critical design elements and appropriate scientific visualizations that effectively convey results to the field staff. We also expect to find a connection between using culturally appropriate aesthetics and language to build a format for future informational sources.

    THU-114 DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF ASTHMA IN THE U.S.

    • Omar Mansour ;
    • Krista Heinlen ;
    • Jackson Tara ;
    • Michelle Ross ;
    • Blanca Himes ;

    THU-114

    DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF ASTHMA IN THE U.S.

    Omar Mansour1, Krista Heinlen2, Jackson Tara2, Michelle Ross2, Blanca Himes2.

    1Macalester College, St. Paul, MN, 2TheUniversity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease affecting over 25 million Americans, has persisting and marked disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Such disparities are typically attributed to poor health, disease risk factors, and limited access to health care due to social, economic, and environmental disadvantages, and to differences in genetic predisposition that vary by race. The Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a U.S. Center for Disease Control-led phone survey of adults that collects data to measure behavioral risk factors that link to chronic diseases including asthma. We sought to identify demographic and socioeconomic determinants of asthma in the U.S. using BRFSS data from 2002 to 2012. Of 2,013,187 respondents, 13.3% reported having lifetime asthma with significant differences by race/ethnicity: 12.9% Whites, 15.1% Blacks, 17.6% American Indians/Alaskan Natives, 10.4% Asians/Pacific Islanders, and 13.0% Hispanics. Individual variable analyses also found that sex, age, income, education, smoking status, and body mass index were associated with lifetime asthma. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis using fixed effects for these variables and random intercepts for FIPS county codes found that income was a strong independent predictor of lifetime asthma, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI: 1.49 - 1.54) for income < $25,000 vs. ≥ $75,000. The association between lifetime asthma and race/ethnicity did not remain significant after adjusting for other variables, except for American Indians/Alaskan Natives who were 1.2 (95% CI: 1.18 - 1.29) times more likely to have asthma than non-Hispanic Whites. Our results suggest that asthma disparities are largely driven by socioeconomic factors that disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minorities.

    THU-110 EXPLORING UNDERINSURANCE IN 2 SAFETY-NET CLINICS IN NEW MEXICO

    • Monica Swann ;
    • Gina Cardinali ;
    • Robert Rhyne ;
    • Andrew Sussman ;
    • Jennifer Bryant ;

    THU-110

    EXPLORING UNDERINSURANCE IN 2 SAFETY-NET CLINICS IN NEW MEXICO

    Monica Swann, Gina Cardinali, Robert Rhyne, Andrew Sussman, Jennifer Bryant.

    The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.

    Since the inception of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), increased attention has shifted from the uninsured to the underinsured. Underinsurance (UI) is experientially defined to be when a person with health insurance experiences stressors due to the lack of access to medical care. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UI before the ACA, elicit patient and provider perceptions of UI, and explore the psychosocial and socioeconomic impact of UI. The study was implemented in New Mexico in 2 safety net clinics among the Vietnamese, Hispanic, and Anglo clinic population. Quantitative data were collected using surveys administered via telephone and in-person interviews and using REDCap electronic data collection software. Qualitative data were collected from patients and providers using interviews and focus groups and analyzed by reviewing transcripts thematically. The mixed-method approach allowed a deeper understanding of the experiences and decisional challenges encountered by patients and providers. Almost one-third of study participants were underinsured and 46% of them reported having poor health. Patients who were between 30 and 46 years old, Hispanic, low-income, and employed full-time were the most susceptible to being underinsured. Those with an income of < $25K were 8 times more likely to be underinsured. Qualitative data revealed 3 distinct themes: challenges UI patients encounter (inability to pay for necessary healthcare); strategies UI patients use (skipping or stretching medication); and patient and provider primary care specific problems (patients felt that personal relationships with doctors would improve care).

    THU-115 EMOTIONAL DEFICITS IN THE OFFSPRING OF ALCOHOL-ABUSING FAMILIES

    • Makenzi Wagneress ;
    • Blas Espinoza-Varas ;

    THU-115

    EMOTIONAL DEFICITS IN THE OFFSPRING OF ALCOHOL-ABUSING FAMILIES

    Makenzi Wagneress, Blas Espinoza-Varas.

    University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK.

    Family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a genetic liability expressed as a neurobehavioral-disinhibition phenotype exhibiting cognitive, behavioral, and emotional dysregulation. The hypothesis assumes lower emotional reactivity in participants with positive (FHP) than with negative (FHN) family history of AUD. Testing entails comparing FHP to FHN samples in terms of task-related or resting-state fMRI brain-activation patterns, emotion-laden probe-task performance, and emotion dysregulation indices (EDI) by reviewing existing studies. Twenty relevant studies were reviewed for differences between FHN and FHP participants in 4 criteria: probe-task performance, demographics and matching variables, task-related fMRI brain-activation patterns/regions, and EDI scores. Against this evidence, the following predictions were tested: 1) lower probe-task performance in FHP samples; 2) significant fMRI activation-pattern differences between FHP and FHN samples, in emotion-processing or behavioral-control brain regions; 3) significant EDI differences; and 4) significant correlation between the 3 predicted differences. Nine different probe tasks and 6 different EDIs were used with demographically-matched FHP and FHN teenagers/young adults. The existing evidence showed that 5 probe tasks produced significant between-sample performance differences; 3 studies reported between-sample activation differences in emotion-processing regions; 5 studies showed sample differences in behavioral-control regions; and fMRI activation patterns correlated closely with EDIs and physiological probe-task responses but not with behavioral probe-task performance. Currently, there is conflicting and insufficient evidence demonstrating that FHP individuals exhibit emotional hypo-reactivity. Studies employing physiological emotion indices provide stronger support to the hypothesis than those employing behavioral responses.

    THU-104 USAGE OF TOBACCO CESSATION HELPLINE (QUITNOW) IN RURAL NEW MEXICO

    • Abigail Velasquez ;
    • Theresa Cruz ;
    • Andrea Cantarero ;
    • Sally Davis ;

    THU-104

    USAGE OF TOBACCO CESSATION HELPLINE (QUITNOW) IN RURAL NEW MEXICO

    Abigail Velasquez1, Theresa Cruz2, Andrea Cantarero1, Sally Davis2.

    1The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 2University of New Mexico Medical School Prevention Research Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    The QUITNOW tobacco cessation helpline program is an evidence-based method for increasing tobacco cessation in New Mexico. Although many efforts have been made to create and implement tobacco cessation interventions, research on the effectiveness of such programs in rural communities is limited. Data obtained from cities are typically generalized to all communities. This study aims to address the following question: To what extent are adults in rural communities engaging in the QUITNOW program compared with adults in urban communities? We hypothesize that rural communities may have a considerably lower rate of accessing QUITNOW than urban communities because of unique circumstances which vary according to community. Rates of QUITNOW use will be calculated for each zip code in New Mexico. We analyzed the ratio of the total number of initial contacts to the 18-and-over population who are tobacco users interested in quitting. Data from rural communities were compared with data from urban communities, statistically by t-test. We found the initial contact rate to be significantly lower (p = 0.03) in rural communities than that of urban communities. Results also indicated there was not a statistical difference in enrollees. This research will inform development of a focus group to better understand barriers to QUITNOW use in rural communities. It will also inform future interventions to increase use of QUITNOW in those communities. Tobacco-free living is an essential component of reducing health disparities. Our findings regarding disparities associated with residence in a rural community will help to address gaps in our knowledge.

    FRI-115 USING PEDESTRIAN COUNTS TO ASSESS COMMUNITY-WIDE INTERVENTIONS TO INCREASE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN RURAL CUBA, NEW MEXICO

    • Hannah Torres ;
    • Sally Davis ;
    • Theresa Cruz ;

    FRI-115

    USING PEDESTRIAN COUNTS TO ASSESS COMMUNITY-WIDE INTERVENTIONS TO INCREASE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN RURAL CUBA, NEW MEXICO

    Hannah Torres, Sally Davis, Theresa Cruz.

    University of New Mexico Medical School Prevention Research Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    Rural residents are often less active than urban and suburban residents. Reasons cited in the literature include certain environmental barriers such as lack of sidewalks, bike lanes, and affordable exercise facilities. The Village Interventions and Venues for Activity (VIVA) Step Into Cuba project aims to address these barriers in Cuba, New Mexico, by implementing community-wide interventions to increase physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implemented interventions resulted in an increase in walking over time. The data were collected according to methods established by the National Bicycle and Pedestrian Project. These methods included field observations performed by trained researchers and community members on 3 days of the week (Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday) during 2 time intervals (12 noon - 2 p.m. and 5 p.m. - 7 p.m.). The total sample included counts of pedestrians, bicyclists, and other non-motorized traffic obtained during the month of May from 2010 to 2015 and totaled 1,772 observations in 3 established locations. Data were characterized by type of traffic, location, gender, age, and year. Analysis showed a decline in travels over the study period, with an average decrease of 9.08 people per year. There was an increase of about 5.2 pedestrians per year among individuals under the age of 18. Weather may have accounted for the decline, as rain was documented on observation dates for the last 3 years, while the first 3 were indicated as sunny or mild weather. These results will be used by the VIVA project to tailor further interventions to increase physical activity in rural communities in New Mexico.

    THU-109 INDOOR MICROBIAL AIR QUALITY OF A 42-YEAR-OLD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    • Nichole Palmer ;
    • Lillian Sturmer. ;
    • Christine Case ;

    THU-109

    INDOOR MICROBIAL AIR QUALITY OF A 42-YEAR-OLD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Nichole Palmer, Lillian Sturmer, Christine Case.

    Skyline College, San Bruno, CA.

    The average public school building in the U.S. is over 40 years old, and 29% of them have never been renovated. Almost any building surface can nourish microbial growth. Elevated levels of indoor airborne microorganisms can result in significantly higher rates of illness, particularly in people with increased susceptibility (e.g., children). The objective of this study was to perform a survey of indoor microbial air quality of a water-damaged 42-year-old school operating as a child development center in the San Francisco Bay Area. We collected 496 air samples within the old building and 180 air samples from nearby newer buildings and outdoor locations. Air samples were taken with an impact air sampler onto nutrient media selected for bacteria and fungi. Data were examined using a 3D approach and multivariable analysis. Indoor airborne bacteria were 68% higher in the old building compared to neighboring renovated buildings and 38% higher than outdoor air. Airborne fungi were 67% more numerous compared to the renovated buildings and 47% lower than outdoors. The variety and number of microorganisms inside the older building were different than outdoors. No direct source of contamination was found; however, open windows correlate with a 50% increase in indoor fungal concentrations (p < 0.001). Our data confirm that ventilation and filter maintenance help lower microbial aerosols and should be maintained in accordance with California regulations.

    FRI-109 DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMPIRICALLY INFORMED TOOL TO EVOKE PATIENT CHANGE TALK: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PATIENT REASONS TO CHANGE RISKY ALCOHOL USE

    • Connie Ma ;
    • Stephanie A. Cockrell ;
    • Jennifer E. Hettema ;

    FRI-109

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMPIRICALLY INFORMED TOOL TO EVOKE PATIENT CHANGE TALK: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PATIENT REASONS TO CHANGE RISKY ALCOHOL USE

    Connie Ma, Stephanie A. Cockrell, Jennifer E. Hettema.

    The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.

    Risky alcohol use affects far more people than alcohol use disorders and increases risk for various medical, psychological, and social problems. Primary care providers are encouraged to identify risky drinkers, those who exceed the recommended daily limit of 4 drinks for men (3 for women) or the weekly limit of 14 drinks for men (7 for women), and provide brief intervention to encourage reduced use. Aspects of motivational interviewing are often used in brief interventions to strategically evoke reasons for change. Change talk occurs when individuals verbally express reasons for change and is predictive of positive outcome. Unfortunately, learning to recognize and respond to change talk is a complex skill that requires extensive training time and feedback. The purpose of the current study is to develop a tool that can be used by primary care providers with minimal training in motivational interviewing to aid in evocation. We transcribed and qualitatively analyzed 16 motivational interviewing-based brief intervention sessions targeting risky drinking among primary care patients. In a first pass, we extracted all instances of patient change talk. In a second pass, we iteratively organized change talk into themes. We identified 5 prominent change talk themes: health, hangover, regrets, loss of control, and balance. Using patient language, we provided several examples of each theme and created an infographic and corresponding evocative questions that can be used as prompts for providers to evoke change talk during brief interventions. Future research should address the acceptability and effectiveness of the provider tool.

    FRI-114 CORRELATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARD CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES AND KNOWLEDGE OF CHRONIC NON-CANCER PAIN MANAGEMENT ON PRESCRIBING BEHAVIOR

    • Vivian Nguyen ;
    • Robert Rhyne ;
    • Danelle Callan ;
    • Jennifer Bryant ;

    FRI-114

    CORRELATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARD CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES AND KNOWLEDGE OF CHRONIC NON-CANCER PAIN MANAGEMENT ON PRESCRIBING BEHAVIOR

    Vivian Nguyen, Robert Rhyne, Danelle Callan, Jennifer Bryant.

    The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.

    New Mexico has the second highest rate of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. Primary care providers (PCPs) fear treating chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) with opioids due to the possibility of misuse, abuse, or addiction. Most providers are not specialized in pain management, have not received sufficient training, or lack access to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). They may be reluctant to prescribe opioids to patients they do not have adequate time to assess thoroughly. This study examined the correlation of attitudes toward CPGs in general and knowledge of CNCP management using opioids to 3 categories of provider prescribing behavior: 1) don’t prescribe; 2) don’t initiate, but continue; and 3) initiate and continue. Interviews and a survey were conducted among PCPs in 2 southern New Mexico health systems. In general, providers’ attitudes toward CPGs were more positive ([4.62 ±0.675] [range 1 - 6]), and knowledge of CNCP management was slightly higher ([4.27 ±0.338] [range 1 - 6, reverse score]) in the category of don’t initiate, but continue. Most negative attitudes toward CPGs (3.96) and generally the lowest knowledge (4.41) were in the initiate and continue category. Nearly 3/4 of participants don’t initiate opioids, demonstrating a reluctant prescribing behavior overall. Providing education for CNCP management and standard, accessible CPGs will help in effective and safe treatment for patients in rural, underserved populations in the state of New Mexico. Further directions of this study include analysis of prescribing behaviors in relation to licensure type and/or years of practice.

    FRI-108 ACCURACY OF RACE AND ETHNICITY: A POTENTIAL BARRIER IN IDENTIFYING RACIAL AND ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    • Miriam Magana Lopez ;
    • Gwen R. Wallen ;

    FRI-108

    ACCURACY OF RACE AND ETHNICITY: A POTENTIAL BARRIER IN IDENTIFYING RACIAL AND ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    Miriam Magana Lopez, Gwen R. Wallen.

    National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD.

    Data collection on race and ethnicity is critical in assessments of racial disparities related to health and environmental risks. However, research studies comparing clinical and administrative data show discrepancies in race documentation and attribution. Data from the Health Behaviors Study in Minority Patients with Rheumatic Diseases (NCT#0069342) were compared to demographics in the NIH Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS). Descriptive analyses were conducted to quantify the percent agreement of ethnicity and race attributions between clinical data from BTRIS and self-reported health behavior study data collected in face-to-face interviews. These interviews were conducted in English (n = 68) and Spanish (n = 41). The sample (n = 109) was predominantly female (75.2%), with a mean age of 51 (SD ± 13.2), with a mean time in the U.S. of 13 years (SD ± 11.75). Those who identified as Hispanic (n = 45) scored a mean of 5.84 (SD ± 3.9) on the Short Acculturation Scale (SAS) that ranges 4 to 20; lower scores indicate less acculturation. Results indicate there is a larger disagreement in race attribution (45.9%) compared to ethnicity attribution (3.7%) between clinical documentation data and self-reported study data. Additionally, there is a larger disagreement in race attribution (95.2%) in those identified as Hispanic/Latino in the ethnicity category than those identified as non-Hispanic/Latino (9.7%). The misclassification of race was most frequent in those individuals who self-identified as Hispanic. As the Hispanic population in the U.S. continues to grow, more research is needed to understand the factors that affect the way people from heterogeneous populations self-report race and ethnicity.

    FRI-104 BUTYROPHENONE ANTIPSYCHOTICS AS INHIBITORS OF THE NORA EFFLUX PUMP CAN REVERSE CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    • Orangel Gutierrez Fugon ;
    • Luis Mota-Bravo ;

    FRI-104

    BUTYROPHENONE ANTIPSYCHOTICS AS INHIBITORS OF THE NORA EFFLUX PUMP CAN REVERSE CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Orangel Gutierrez Fugon, Luis Mota-Bravo.

    University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA.

    In Staphylococcus aureus, the transmembrane protein NorA has been found to mediate the efflux of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine have been found to inhibit NorA efflux pump activity in S. aureus. We hypothesize that butyrophenone antipsychotics haloperidol, droperidol, and spiperone will also reverse ciprofloxacin resistance in S. aureus by inhibiting the NorA efflux pump. Combinations of butyrophenones or chlorpromazine with ciprofloxacin were used in checkerboard assays to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). We observed a reduction in the MIC of ciprofloxacin from 8 ug/mL to 1 ug/mL when used in combination with butyrophenones. FIC values were 0.15, 0.26, and 0.18 for droperidol, haloperidol, and spiperone, respectively, demonstrating a synergistic activity for all 3 compounds when combined with ciprofloxacin (FIC ≤ 0.5). A growth assay and time-to-kill assay confirmed this synergistic effect. Additionally, bactericidal activities against S. aureus were found in haloperidol and spiperone when combined with ciprofloxacin. Ethidium bromide efflux assays established that butyrophenones were able to reduce the loss of ethidium bromide fluorescence over time, confirming a blockage of the NorA efflux pump. In silico structure analysis demonstrated that the most energetically favorable docking sites for butyrophenones are in the same region where ciprofloxacin binds, suggesting a potential competitive binding mechanism with the substrate. Taken together, these results show that butyrophenones are inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump, and its derivatives have potential for treating ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus infections in combination therapy.