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  • Undergraduate Poster Abstracts
  • Public Health (Include. Env. Health/Epidemiology)

    Room National Harbor 13

    ap056 HISPANIC BALANCED LIVING WITH DIABETES: A LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION FOR UNDERSERVED HISPANICS IN SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA

    • Ivette Valenzuela ;
    • Kathryn Hosig ;
    • Kerry Redican ;
    • Carlos Evia ;
    • Elena Serrano ;

    n/a

    HISPANIC BALANCED LIVING WITH DIABETES: A LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION FOR UNDERSERVED HISPANICS IN SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA

    Ivette Valenzuela, Kathryn Hosig, Kerry Redican, Carlos Evia, Elena Serrano.

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

    U.S. prevalence of diabetes in Hispanics was 12% in 2012 and is expected to be 20% by 2031. In 2012, the total estimated cost of diabetes in U.S. was $245 billion. Lack of community-based interventions that consider barriers related to culture, language, and immigration status increases the risk of complications for people with limited access to healthcare and are living with pre-diabetes or type-2 diabetes. Community-based diabetes education programs delivered in faith-based settings have been successful in improving diabetes self-management. Hispanic Balanced Living with Diabetes (HBLD) is a type-2 diabetes lifestyle intervention designed to improve blood glucose control. A community-based lifestyle education curriculum was translated, interpreted into Spanish, and adapted to Hispanic culture. Preliminary A1C screening and HBLD programs were offered at 2 Catholic churches. Of 67 preliminary screening participants, 59% were female; 49% had A1C >5.7%. Of 30 HBLD program participants, 56% were female and 44% were male. Baseline versus 3-month A1c (mean ± sd) was 6.0 ± 0.5 versus 6.2 ± 0.7 for the delayed control group (n = 10) and 6.4 ± 0.9 versus 6.4 ± 0.9 for the intervention group (n = 11). The difference in A1C change between treatment groups was not statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05). HBLD has potential to prevent further increase in A1c among Hispanic participants with pre-diabetes by providing education to those who may not otherwise have access to lifestyle education for type-2 diabetes. Longer-term studies are warranted.

    ap057 WORLD TRADE CENTER-DERIVED INFLAMMATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN NASAL, NEURAL, AND PULMONARY TISSUES

    • Michelle Hernandez ;
    • Karen Galdanes ;
    • Andrea Harrington ;
    • Joshua Vaughan ;
    • Dana Lauterstein ;
    • Ethan Sebasco ;
    • Terry Gordon ;
    • Lung-Chi Chen ;

    n/a

    WORLD TRADE CENTER-DERIVED INFLAMMATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN NASAL, NEURAL, AND PULMONARY TISSUES

    Michelle Hernandez, Karen Galdanes, Andrea Harrington, Joshua Vaughan, Dana Lauterstein, Ethan Sebasco, Terry Gordon, Lung-Chi Chen.

    New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY.

    Currently, there is an overall lack of scientific data with regard to World Trade Center particulate matter (WTCPM) exposure and its inflammatory/oxidative potential. This study evaluated intranasally administered WTCPM<53µm-derived oxidative stress in primary and secondary targets. Male 12 - 15 week old C57Bl/6 mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/50 µl WTCPM via intranasal instillation, with significantly observed polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) responses ranging from 20 to 30% in both nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Repeated acute intranasal exposures at 1 mg, 0.5 mg, and 0.25 mg/ 50 µl WTCPM resulted in significant PMN influx (12 to 30%) in lower and upper respiratory tracts. Most significantly, expression in APP (3.8-fold) and antioxidant genes Prdx2 (5.8-fold) and Txnrd6 (5.9-fold) were found to be up regulated in olfactory bulbs of acutely exposed mice 24 hours and 7 days post exposure. SOD-2 was found to be significantly down regulated in the olfactory epithelium, while HO-1 and SOD-2 were equally down regulated in pulmonary tissues after acute repeat exposures at varying doses of WTCPM. In a co-exposure scenario, mice were intranasally treated with 10 ng/10 µl LPS, 1 mg/50 µl WTCPM, or 10 ng/10 µl LPS + 1 mg/50 µl WTCPM, whereby WTCPM was found to significantly potentiate LPS exposure in upper and lower airways (30 - 35% PMN increase), as well as SOD-2 downregulation in pulmonary tissues. These data suggest WTCPM exposure propagates intracellular antioxidant proteins in neural tissues, while concurrently down regulating antioxidant responses in the nose and lung. These novel findings may be due to WTCPM composition (pH, metals, and silica) or potential particle translocation, further potentiating environmentally induced injuries/ diseases brought about by repetitive insult from ambient pollutants.

    ap058 A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TRACK PLATES TO QUANTIFY FINE SCALE VARIATIONS IN NORWAY RAT ABUNDANCE AND ACTIVITY IN URBAN SLUMS

    • Kathryn Hacker ;
    • Amanda Minter ;
    • James Childs ;
    • Albert Ko ;
    • Mike Begon ;
    • Peter Diggle ;
    • Federico Costa ;

    n/a

    A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TRACK PLATES TO QUANTIFY FINE SCALE VARIATIONS IN NORWAY RAT ABUNDANCE AND ACTIVITY IN URBAN SLUMS

    Kathryn Hacker1, Amanda Minter2, James Childs1, Albert Ko1, Mike Begon2, Peter Diggle2, Federico Costa3.

    1Yale University, New Haven, CT, 2Institute of Integrative Biology, Liverpool University, Liverpool, GB, 3Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BR.

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) living in urban environments are a public health and economic problem, yet convenient methods to quantitatively assess population sizes are lacking. We evaluated track plates as a method to determine rat distribution and abundance in a complex urban slum environment by correlating the presence and intensity of rat-specific marks on track plates with the results from quantitative visual surveys of rat infestation and the results from active trapping of rats between intervals of track plate placement. To integrate the zero-inflated track plate data, we developed a 2-component mixture model with one binary and one censored continuous component. Track plate-mark intensity was highly correlated with signs of rodent infestation (r between 0.62 and 0.79). Moreover, the mean level of pre-trapping rat-mark intensity on plates was significantly associated with the number of rats captured (1.38; 95% CI 1.19 - 1.61) and declined significantly following trapping (0.86; 95% CI 0.78 - 0.95). Track plates provided robust proxy measurements of rat abundance and distribution and detected rat presence even when populations appeared ‘trapped out’. Tracking plates are relatively easy and inexpensive methods that can be used to intensively sample settings such as urban slums, where traditional trapping or mark-recapture studies are impossible to implement and, therefore, the results can inform and assess the impact of targeted urban rodent control campaigns and relevant public health outcomes such as leptospirosis.